References & Readings:

Barrow, F. H., Armstrong, M. I., Vargo, A., & Boothroyd, R. A. (2007).
Understanding the findings of resilience-related research for fostering the
development of African American adolescents. Child and Adolescent
Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16, 393–413.

Biko, S. (1996). I write what I like: A selection of his writings: London:
Bowerdean (pp. 40–53)

Boykin, A. W. (1986). The triple quandary and the Afro-American children. In U.
Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children, (pp. 57–92).
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Cassidy, E. F., Davis, G. Y., & Stevenson, Jr., H. C. (2003). "If we must die":
CPR for managing Catch-33, alienation, and hypervulnerability. In H. C.

Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., & Williams, D. R. (2002). Racism as a
stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model. In T. A.
LaVeist (Ed.) Race, ethnicity, and health: A public health reader (pp. 319-
339). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Council of the Great City Schools (2012). A call for change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievment

Goggins II, L. (1998). Bringing the light into a new day: African centered rites of
passage. Akron, OH: Saint rest Publications. (pp. 1–46)

Harper, F. D., Terry, L. M., & Twiggs, R. (2009). Counseling Strategies with
Black boys and Black men: Implications for policy. Journal of Negro
Education, 78, 218–232.

Harper, S. (2006) Peer support for African American male college achievement:
beyond internalized racism and the burden of "Acting White". The Journal
of Men's Studies, 14, 337–358.

Lincoln, Q. & Pager, D. (2001). "Black neighbors, higher crime? The role of
racial stereotypes in evaluations of neighborhood crime." American
Journal of Sociology: 107, 717–767.

Shapiro, H. (1988) White violence and black response: From reconstruction to
Montgomery. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. (Chapter
2 - Lynching and Black Perspectives. pp. 30-63)

Shujaa, M. J. (1994). Education and schooling: You can have one without the
other. In M. J. Shujaa (Ed.), Too much schooling too little education: A
paradox of black life in white societies. (pp. 13–36). Trenton, NJ: Africa
World Press, Inc.

Stevenson (Ed.) Playing with anger: Teaching coping skills to African
American boys through athletics and culture (pp. 89–113). Westport, CT:
Greenwood Publishing.

Sue, D. W., et. al. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications
for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62, 271–286.

Watts, R. J., Williams, N. C., & Jagers, R.J. (2003). Sociopolitical development.
American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 185–194.

Whaley, A.L. (2001). Cultural mistrust and mental health services for African
Americans: a review and meta-analysis. Counseling Psychology, 29, 513–

White, J. L. & Cones III, J. H. (1999). Black man emerging: Facing the past and
seizing a future in America. New York: Routledge. (Chapter 6 - Masculine
Alternatives: The African-American Perspective.)


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